Full Course Description
Advanced Assessment Skills: Master Cardiac, Neuro, & Respiratory Patients
- Assess where and why vesicular, bronchovesicular and bronchial sounds can be normal or abnormal and the significance of the abnormalities.
- Appraise pathophysiology and differential diagnoses for crackles, wheezes, rhonchi and rubs.
- Develop management of obstructive vs. restrictive lung disease.
- Practice a thorough 6-part neurological exam and document findings.
- Evaluate primary causes of mental status changes and patients most at risk for delirium for quick intervention.
- Distinguish whether abnormal S1 and S2 heart sounds are pathological or benign.
- Determine whether systolic and diastolic murmurs indicate cardiac disease.
Head-to-Toe Approach - Learn tips, tricks, and tools to conduct a quick and precise head-to-toe assessment
- Assess the patient using the most comprehensive approach
- Evaluate baseline and identify patient status changes
- Devise tips and tools to perform a more efficient exam without missing key clues
- Conduct proper assessment skills - inspect, auscultate, palpate, percuss
Neurological Exam - Mastering the 6-Part components of a Neuro exam in less time
- Unraveling the 6-Part components of a thorough Neurological Examination
- ABCT Components of Mental Status
- Key points and clues of using Confusion Assessment Method (CAM) Instrument and what can be diagnosed as a result
- Evaluate an efficient and accurate assessment of normal vs. abnormal findings for: altered mental status, cranial nerves, motor, sensory, cerebellar functions, reflexes
- Danger Signs for abnormal findings and how to identify diseases by physical examination
Respiratory Exam - Identifying the different breath sounds and their locations to narrow down diagnosis
- Physical assessment of the respiratory system - key points of normal anatomy to remember
- Identification of normal, abnormal, decreased or absent breath and lung sounds
- Assessment and techniques of Tactile Fremitus, percussion, lung auscultation
- Interpreting what you are hearing and what you should expect to hear:
- Bronchial, Broncho-vesicular, Vesicular Breath Sounds
- Bronchophony, Egophony, Whispered Petroliloquy
- Death Rattle, Absent Breath Sounds
- Learning the adventitious sounds like Crackles, Rhonchi, Stridor, Wheezes and what to do with them
- What Lung Sounds to expect in different disease states
Cardiac Exam - Knowing the different murmurs, their presentation, sounds and location to accurately pinpoint the disease process
- Examination of mitral, tricuspid, pulmonary, and aortic
- Auscultation sites, sequencing and skills
- Characteristics of a functional murmur
- How to identify?
- 7-point classification
- When does a murmur become pathologic?
- Strategies for detection of abnormal cardiac sounds
Advanced Pathophysiology & The Direct Impact on Patient Care
- Evaluate clinical examples to explain the statement: "Virtually all human disease is 'autoimmune' in nature."
- Analyze an effective method to review options in pharmacologic therapy for any condition.
- Plan for the self-destructive spiral of progressive chronic heart failure.
- Determine how the statin drugs significantly reduce a person's risk of cardiovascular disease (MI and stroke), regardless of the serum cholesterol level.
- Differentiate the mechanism underlying death in asthma and a way to prevent it.
- Apply the "Three Question Approach" to interpretation of arterial blood gases.
- Distinguish the "common mechanism" for shock, regardless of the initial cause.
Endocrine and Metabolic Problems
- Pituitary disorders
- Free radicals – Essential in health, deadly in disease
- Diabetic ketoacidosis
- Adrenal gland dysfunction
- Addison’s disease
- Implications of hormones
- Thyroid disorders – Mechanism of onset affects treatment
Cardiovascular and Renal Problems
- Starling’s Law – Normal capillary flow
- Heart failure
- Relationship between cardiac diseases and hypertension
- Unraveling hypertension
- Current concept on cardiogenic shock
- Atherosclerosis – The role of inflammation
- Acid-base disorders
- Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease exacerbations
- Obstructive lung diseases affecting the mechanics of lung ventilation
- Sudden death in asthma
- Acute lung failure/ARDS
- Arterial blood gases - Made simple
- Common mechanisms of all types of shock
- The cardinal role of mediators in shock
- Newer therapies based on current pathophysiological understanding
- End points of resuscitation
- What type of shock is this?
The Immune System
- Inflammation – Acute phase response
- Systemic inflammatory response
- Infection – Part of a bigger picture
- Multiple organ dysfunction syndrome
- Stress reaction
- Autoimmune diseases