Full Course Description

Essential Visual Anatomy: Discover How Vision Deficits Affect Function, Learning, Behavior, and School Outcomes

Most significant visual impediments are game-changers – if not addressed, no therapeutic intervention will be successful. You will better serve your clients if you understand the mechanics of visual function and how the brain and eyes work together.  Learn how to discern whether what you’re seeing is an effect of a visual impediment, and most importantly, what to do about it.  This training is the first step to becoming a vision-aware clinician: you’ll improve your efficiency and get your clients to where they need to be sooner.

Program Information


  1. Inspect principles of human neurology as it relates to vision.
  2. Investigate the overall structure of the globe.
  3. Investigate anterior segment structures.
  4. Assess the retina, optic nerve and the visual nerve pathways.
  5. Determine the role of extra-ocular muscles in controlling direction of gaze.
  6. Evaluate other critical neural inputs: Elements of the ‘chair of vision’.


  • Major Human Neurological Principles
    • Major functional systems are similarly organized
    • Neurons at each synaptic relay are organized into a neural map of the body
    • The cerebral cortex is concerned with cognition 
    • The thalamus is an essential link between sensory receptors and the cerebral cortex for all modalities except for olfaction
    • Psychophysics relates physical properties of stimuli to sensations. Tests like TVPS do not. 
  • Anatomic Directions and Planes
  • Anatomic Features of the Eye
  • Neurology
    • Retina
    • Optic Chiasm
    • Optic Tract
    • Lateral Geniculate Nucleus (LGN) (if you want to know how systems integrate, look at how they are physically integrated, consider LGN and MGN)
    • Calcarine Fissure
    • Autonomic Innervation of the Ocular Structures
    • Cranial Nerves Involved in Vision
  • Extraocular Muscles
    • Ductions
  • Common Concerns Involving Vision and Visual Function
    • ADHD/Attention Deficits
    • Reading disabilities
    • Emotional Disturbances
    • Headache
    • Diplopia (double vision) and blur
    • Learning disabilities
    • Fine motor deficits
    • Brain injury/TBI
    • Acute / chronic spatial awareness / balance issues
    • Sport / Performance Deficits
    • Low Visual Perceptual Testing Results
    • Receptive and Productive Language Deficits
  • Discussion 
    • The limitations of anatomy: why anatomy is critical, but not the whole picture.

Target Audience

  • Occupational Therapists
  • Physical Therapists
  • Educators
  • Pediatric/Educational psychologists
  • Family Doctors/Pediatricians
  • Other health professionals working in rehabilitation (geriatrics, TBI)
  • Other professionals working in child development

Copyright : 08/01/2022

Pediatric Vision Assessment: Detecting Visual Impediments to Learning and Development

There is nothing more frustrating than suspecting something might be wrong, but not being able to put your finger on it.  

Today’s children are falling through the cracks of the medical system with little to no support or appropriate follow up for vision related concerns.  What you don’t know about vision is costing you, costing your clients.  
This program gently introduces you to the critically important world of vision assessment for children.  From infants through to the school years, you’ll uncover the core concepts of vision development and testing including: 

  • What’s missing from common vision testing?  
  • Build your vision literacy!
  • Special age-based considerations for testing
  • Words jumping around on the page? Is it a reading problem, or an oculomotor problem? 

Understanding testing opens the door to understanding the various unaddressed elements of vision that are interfering with your client care. With the broad and deep impacts of vision on daily function – this knowledge will make an immediate difference in your stalled cases. 

Program Information


  1. Assess core factors in human vision development.
  2. Investigate common vision problems and how often they occur.
  3. Determine optimal timetable for comprehensive eye and vision examinations for infants and children (newborn through 18 years of age)
  4. Assess appropriate procedures to effectively examine the eye health, visual functional status, and ocular manifestations of systemic disease in infants and children. 
  5. Reduce the risks and adverse effects of eye and vision problems in infants and children through prevention, education, early diagnosis, treatment and management with optometrists and other care providers.
  6. Integrate education for patients, parents/caregivers, and other health care providers about the importance of eye health and good vision, and the role it plays in child development, learning, and rehabilitation. 
  7. Determine how Visual Impediments to Learning and Development (VILD) can interfere with therapy, testing, and achievement. 
  8. Evaluate some limits to vision testing. 


Pediatric Vision & Development

  • Epidemiology of Eye and Vision Disorders in Children 
  • Access to Care 
  • Costs of Eye and Vision Disorders in Children
  • Early Detection and Prevention of Eye and Vision Disorders

Comprehensive Pediatric Eye and Vision Examination 

  • General Considerations for Each Age Group
    • Infants and Toddlers 
    • Preschool Children 
    • School-age Children 
  • Examination Procedures 
  • Patient History 
  • Testing Specifics for Infants and Toddlers, Preschool and School-Age Children
    • Visual Acuity 
    • Refraction                     
    • Binocular Vision and Ocular Motility
    • Color Vision

Ocular and Systemic Health Assessment 

  • Assessment of Pupillary Responses 
  • Visual Field Evaluation 
  • Evaluation of the Ocular Anterior Segment and Adnexa
  • Evaluation of the Ocular Posterior Segment 
  • Measurement of Intraocular Pressure 

Supplemental Testing 

  • Electrodiagnostic Testing 
  • Imaging 
  • Testing for Learning-related Vision Problems 

Children with Special Needs 

  • At-risk Children 
  • Developmental Disabilities 

Trauma and Ocular Manifestations of Child Abuse/ Neglect 

  • Trauma (Accidental)
  • Ocular Manifestations of Child Abuse and Neglect (Non-accidental) 
  • Potential Benefits and Harms of Testing 

Discussion: Limits to testing and measurements

  • Variance in measurement – how accurate are your readings? 
  • Repeatability – should values be repeatable? 
  • Validity – what do these tests mean? 
  • Yield – what do these tests reveal? 

Target Audience

  • Occupational Therapists
  • Physical Therapists
  • Educators
  • Pediatric/Educational psychologists
  • Family Doctors/Pediatricians
  • Other health professionals working in rehabilitation (geriatrics, TBI)
  • Other professionals working in child development

Copyright : 12/01/2022

Prism and the Vestibular System – Vision, Balance, and Behavioral Dysfunction

Vestibular function goes hand in hand with visual function. When you understand how these systems are intertwined, you can immediately resolve vision-related health and function concerns in many clinical populations: headache, diplopia (double-vision), blur, reading and learning deficits and discomfort, attention problems, photophobia (light sensitivity). Explore:

- How visual-vestibular dysfunction impacts brain injury treatment

- The role of oculomotor and vestibular dysfunction in reading disability and praxis

- Testing techniques that you can modify in your own practice: BPPV, Post-rotational nystagmus, peripheral vs. central visual fields, strabismus and other ocular restrictions.

- Opportunities for “coordinated firing” with multimodal experiences to promote the integration of visual and vestibular function.

- Use of prism in visual perceptual, visuomotor, and oculomotor therapies

- Training full body awareness, sensorimotor conditioning, visual-vestibular patterning with evidence-based tools

Accelerate and bolster outcomes in visuomotor, oculomotor, and perceptual training with simple tests and techniques you can implement right away.

Program Information


  • Differentiate between sight and vision.
  • Evaluate functional elements of vision.
  • Investigate the complementary role of vision and vestibular function.
  • Categorize behavioral concerns as vision-related or vision un-related.
  • Distinguish differences between different motor and sensory systems affecting sight and vision.
  • Assess the role of cranial nerves in visual process
  • Test and quantify various aspects of oculomotor function and vestibular function
  • Integrate oculomotor testing into clinical practice
  • Construct a toolset to evaluate oculomotor skills in the context of clients with possible vestibular challenges.
  • Extrapolate costs for not properly assessing child vision.
  • Construct testing paradigms to suit different ages and populations.
  • Appraise how Visual Impediments to Learning and Development (VILD) can interfere with therapy, testing, and achievement.
  • Evaluate vision testing and its limitations.
  • Implement and create meaningful activities to integrate and accelerate visual and visuomotor functioning.


The Vision and Vestibular Link - Part 1: Foundations

  1. The Mind and the Mindness State – The Role of Motricity in Cognition
  2. The Human Case: Centering in Space
  3. A core function of mammalian neurology, human neurology, is to ‘find and maintain centre’.
  4. Our sense of being as well as our anchor for motricity rely on this ability to self-orient.
    1. This is the foundation for our learning, our personalities, our sense of personal security.
  5. When this spatial grounding is in disorder or disrupted, critical voluntary/reflex muscle responses and mental processes fail.
  6. Personal Spatial Stability – What it Provides
  7. Vestibular/Auditory Anatomy
  8. The sense of security in positioning and stability in space is predicated on three primary senses being healthy and well-integrated.
  9. Impact of Discordance Between Visual, Vestibular, and Somatic Signalling
  10. Our intuitive sense of space arises from our natural neurological predisposition
  11. Review of 8 cranial nerves involved in visual function.
  12. Visual Anatomy: Ambient (Peripheral) vs Central (Focal) Visual Pathways
  13. We view the world through two eyes but also through two distinct visual systems:
    1. Central Visual Pathway vs Peripheral Visual Pathway.
    2. This is volitional as well as reflexive.
  14. Bi-foveation, suppression, diplopia. Visual Fusion Drives Ocular Function.
    1. Ambient (Peripheral) vs Central (Focal) Visual Pathways
  15. The Role of Neural Sensory Afferents – The Chair of Vision
    1. Visual input stabilizes vestibular function
    2. Vestibular input stabilizes visual function
  16. The Role of Auditory Input In Visual Function
  17. Elements of Strong/Robust Visual Process
  18. Overview of Human Visuo-Vestibular Function
  19. Vestibular Function (The Role of the Vestibulum)
  20. Somatosensation
    1. Types of somatic receptors.
    2. Role of somatosensation in oculomotor targeting.
    3. Teaching somatic awareness.
    4. Skin/body hypersensitivity can be modulated.
  21. The Role of Motor Afferents/Input
  22. The Importance of EOM Proprioception
  23. Neurological Representation of Peripersonal (Near) vs. Extrapersonal (Tele-personal or ‘Far’) Space
  24. Vestibular Function is Neurologically Tightly Intertwined with Visual Function
  25. How to tell if dizziness is related to vestibular dysfunction
  26. The role of visual impediments on vestibular function.
  27. Ametropias / Anisometropias
  28. The role of optics.
  29. Strabismus
  30. Amblyopia/suppression
  31. Nystagmus.
  32. Ruling out medical / anatomical / physiological causes
  33. Behavioural / Developmental Optometry is a good place to start.
  34. When to refer, and to whom.
  35. Notes on vision-based psychological/cognitive probes.
  36. Receptor-based Dizziness/Vertigo
    1. BPPV and why Dix-Hallpike / Epley have a narrow clinical application.
  37. What is left is conditioning, therefore trainable.
  38. References & Resources
  39. Additional Notes on the Neurological Representation of Peripersonal and Far Space

The Vision and Vestibular Link - Part 2: Practice

  1. Introduction to the program.
  2. Vision, then, is at the root of cognition and goes beyond simple eyesight. 
  3. Introduction to Vestibular Tools of the Trade

 Prism Goggles / Yoked Prism, weighted blankets, bare feet, sit/bouncing balls, ‘Bosu’ or standing balls, cardboard tubes, ‘plus’ and ‘minus’ lens flippers/trial frames up to +/- 2D, large mirrors, laser pointers, anaglyphic filters, penlight, pens.

  1. BPPV – Benign Paroxysmal Positional Vertigo
  2. Which side is affected in benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (BPPV)?
  3. General notes on repositioning techniques
    1. Dix-Hallpike Test
    2. Epley Maneuver
  4. Ambient/Peripheral Fields vs. Central Fields and Depth Perception
    1. Central acuity
    2. Perimetry (measurement of peripheral fields)
    3. Static’ vs ‘dynamic’ Acuity Testing
    4. Visual acuity charts vs Amsler Grid testing, Confrontational Fields, Automated perimetry
    5. Demo of Confrontation Fields
  5. Next Steps – Oculomotor Testing
    1. Demo of Simple EOM testing – looking for misalignment and difficult vergence at near.
    2. Saccades/pursuits and the NSUCO Oculomotor Test
  6. Additional examples of EOM Testing
    1. Nielsen Fixations: Spatial-Motor Training
    2. OKR (Optokinetic Response) Response – What it tells us.
    3. OKN Drum demo.
  7. Post-Rotary (rotational) Nystagmus (PRN) Testing
    1. OKN v VOR stimulus
    2. Basic Methods of Testing
    3. Validity of PRN Testing
    4. Modification of the post-rotary nystagmus test for evaluating young children
    5. Normative PRN groups and reasons for differences.
    6. Discussion re: Cortical vs developmental PRN
    7. Limits of PRN testing in Children
  8. Prism
    1. Introduction to Prism Optical Basics
    2. Real Life Example of Prism in Strabismus
    3. ‘Yoked’ prism. 
    4. Prism adaptation
    5. Alignment of Prism: the importance of orientation.
    6. Exercising Caution When Using Prism
  9. Using prism with motor skills training – Introduction.
    1. Defining Posture: Phoria vs Strabismus
    2. General Vestibular Training
    3. General Practice – Easy At-Home Practice
    4. Low Tolerance / ‘Medical’ Training
  10. Notes on Binasal Occlusion
  11. Use of compliant surfaces/Sit Balls
  12. Team Walking
  13. Chair Spinning
  14. Core Four: Swimming, Climbing, Martial Arts, Yoga
  15. The Great Outdoors
    1. Swinging: 15 min of free swinging can have lasting effects on attention deficits and motor overflow.
    2. Walking: Flat vs. uneven surfaces.
    3. Walk-Spin / Spin-Targeting
    4. Playgrounds
  16. Vestibular Training and Nausea - Commentary
  17. Things I Couldn’t Get In This Class
    1. Near Range
    2. EOM Testing – Restrictions in movement can cause vestibular effects.
    3. Distance Range
  18. Notes and Comments
    1. Read/Buy these (Amazon)
    2. Investigate / Explore – Easy cost-effective resources.
    3. Commercial solutions.

Target Audience

  • Physical Therapists
  • Occupational Therapists
  • Osteopathic Doctors
  • Medical Doctors

Copyright : 01/02/2023

Physiological Optics: An Introduction to Human Sight and Vision

Physiological optics is how the brain uses the eyes to create clear, aligned imaging for downstream processing – and the challenges it faces in making this happen. Where there is a visual impediment due to trauma or development, visual signal acquisition will be affected and in turn degrades downstream processing. If you consider all that is connected to vision, you’ll start to get an idea of what this can mean: Cognition, Affect / Emotional Function, Fine Motor Control, Gross Motor Coordination, Locomotion, Balance, Orientation / Motor Reflex Responses, Obstacle / Threat Avoidance – it’s everything! 

  • Advance your understanding of human vision and how it plays into the work you do.  
  • Learn about sight (visual signal acquisition), glasses, and how these affect behavior, learning, and rehabilitation.
  • How people receive light naturally and what it is like to have nearsight, farsight, astigmatism, and more.
  • What our eyes do to try to accommodate for any lack of clarity.
  • How this affects us in daily life and in clinic.
  • What can and should be done about it, accounting for purpose and age.

Vision is a complex neurological experience the most complex sensory experience.  Explore a down to earth introduction to refraction, how we focus light with our eyes to see the world clearly – and what happens when things go awry. 

Program Information


  1. Differentiate between the essential refractive conditions: nearsightedness, farsightedness, astigmatism, anisometropia, aniseikonia, presbyopia.
  2. Categorize a refractive state as helpful or unhelpful. Distinguish between minimal refractive errors and those that are significant or severe.
  3. Analyze the specific nature of each of the refractive states and their impacts on performance.
  4. For individual clients and in general, assess and describe how refractive states impact on human development and learning outcomes.
  5. Apply your knowledge and understanding to identify from simply observing whether someone has nearsight (myopia), farsight (hyperopia), or ‘old sight’ (presbyopia).
  6. Read and assess auto-refractor strips to arise at science-based conclusions about your client’s needs and behavior. Gain insight into those in your care, with an emphasis on child development and behavior.
  7. Evaluate and assess one of the most commonly undiagnosed impediments to learning and development – Refractive State.
  8. Investigate lens properties and recognize where some optical solutions may be better in some cases than in others.


Visual Signal Acquisition – Finding What is Important

  • The mechanical side to vision
    • Pursuits
    • Saccades
    • Vergence
    • Versions
    • Fixation
    • Posture
    • Alignment
    • Focus/Accommodation
    • Central vs. peripheral awareness
    • Eyesight/refractive state

Visual Signal Processing – Making Sense of What is Seen

  • Visual discrimination
  • Visual memory
  • Spatial relationships
  • Form constancy
  • Sequential memory
  • Figure-ground
  • Visual closure
  • Spatial awareness
  • Visualization

Neurophysiology of Vision

  • Emmetropia
  • Astigmatism 
  • Hyperopia
  • Myopia
  • Presbyopia
  • Anisometropia

Sensory Attention

  • Eyesight vs. vision – a behavioral perspective 

Eye Charts & Glasses Prescriptions

  • 20/20 and the Limits of Human Sight
  • Sphere, astigmatism and auto-refractor examples

Target Audience

  • Physical Therapist 
  • Physical Therapist Assisstant
  • Occupational Therapist
  • Occupational Therapist Assisstant
  • Doctors of Optometry
  • Athletic Trainer

Copyright : 05/02/2023

The Not-So-Typical Vision of a School-Age Child

Screening, evaluation, documentation, and intervention of a child that may have flown under the visual screening radar but truly has a visual impairment. The concerns and remediation for this very common pediatric client will be discussed with a functional and pragmatic approach.

Program Information


  1. Assess screening and evaluation options for a child to determine functional vision.
  2. Demonstrate documentation of functional and objective goals for a child with mild visual dysfunction.
  3. Demonstrate the development of intervention plan for child with functional vision impairment.


  • Screening for vision concerns of a child.
  • Evaluation of the child that presents with minimal impairment.
  • Documentation of vision concerns and the impact on school, play and life.
  • Intervention for the mildly impaired child.

Target Audience

  • Physical Therapists
  • Occupational Therapists
  • Speech-Language Pathologists

Copyright : 04/26/2021

Vision Techniques for Eye Movement Disorders Associated with Autism, ADHD, Dyslexia & Other Neurological Disorders: Hands-on Assessments and Treatments for Children and Adolescents

Do you work with children with ADHD, dysgraphia, dyslexia, letter reversals and reading problems that do not respond to typical treatments? Are you frustrated by a lack of progress in children who exhibit poor:

  • Reading skills
  • Handwriting
  • Posture
  • Visual motor integration
  • Ball handling skills
  • Visual processing and visual perceptual skills?

Do you know a child that cannot catch a ball and frequently trips? What about the child with autism that studies small objects in the peripheral? Or a low tone child that struggles with handwriting? These problems may be related to an eye movement or near vision focusing difficulties.

Watch this recording and learn to find the root of these problems by learning to assess eye movements and near vision. You will learn evidence-based techniques to improve vision that integrate the visual, vestibular and proprioceptive systems using interventions developed by an occupational therapist that will get results.

Thorough video demonstrations and case studies you will learn treatment techniques, including: DIY and high-tech solutions, the Brock String and Hart Chart, prism and lenses, holistic techniques, tools for balance, gait and posture and more!

These interventions can be used immediately and effectively in your practice to improve outcomes in your young patients. Master these treatment techniques and increase your confidence in your own practice abilities! 

Program Information


  1. Explore the anatomy and physiology of the visual system from cornea to cortex.
  2. Recognize eye movement disorders associated with ADHD, dysgraphia, and dyslexia and improve outcomes for these diagnoses.
  3. Demonstrate techniques to assess for eye movement difficulties and near vision using readily available tools.
  4. Communicate the role of vision in gait, balance and posture.
  5. Recognize the signs of a faulty near-vision system and the implications of reading and visual motor integration.
  6. Demonstrate evidence-based techniques to treat eye movement defects.
  7. Articulate common ICD-10 codes for eye movement disorders.


The Pediatric Eye Exam

  • Ophthalmology or Optometry or Vision Therapy
  • Case study: ​Becca

Anatomy of the Visual System

  • The anatomy of the Orbit Muscles of the eye
  • The visual pathways of vision in the brain
  • Magnocelluar vs Parvocellular Stream

Congenital Visual Problems

  • Coloboma
  • Optic Nerve Hypoplasia: Case study: Blake
  • Retinopathy of Prematurity
  • The role of therapists in Cortical Visual Impairment

Common Eye Movement Problems Affecting PT and OT Outcomes

  • Suppression Strabismus, Anisometropia, and amblyopia
  • Nystagmus
  • Convergence Insufficiency
  • Accommodative problems 

Assessment of Eye Movements and Near Vision

  • Tracking
  • Saccades
  • Convergence
  • The Near Vision System: Case study: Raleigh
  • Lab Time

Treatment Techniques for the Visual System

  • DIY and High-Tech solutions
  • The Brock String and Hart Chart Prism and lenses
  • Holistic treatment techniques
  • Clinic videos
  • Case studies describing treatment

Vision Tools for Balance, Gait and Posture

  • BiNasal Occulsion
  • “Glasses that fix toe-walking”
  • Case studies: Charlotte; Audry
  • Mid-Line Shift Syndrome: Case study: Ben

Vision Problems Associated with:

  • TBI, Stroke and Concussion
  • ADHD:
  • Case study: Bryson and Nate
  • Dyslexia
  • Autism
  • Sensory Modulation Postural
  • Dysfunction: Case study: Jon

Mid-Level Visual Processes

  • Visual motor integration tips: Case study: David
  • Visual processing disorder
  • Visual perceptual deficits

Coding and Goals for Eye Movement Problems

  • ICD-10 codes common for eye movement problems
  • Basic goals for eye movement problems
  • Resources for more information

Target Audience

  • Occupational Therapists
  • Occupational Therapy Assistants
  • Physical Therapists
  • Physical Therapist Assistants
  • Early Intervention Staff
  • Educators

Copyright : 03/20/2019

Vision Rehabilitation & Neuroplasticity Techniques for Success in a 3-D World

Visual abilities in children may be overlooked, under-evaluated and postponed. Avoid wait and see and begin successful techniques for dyslexia, strabismus, nystagmus, low vision or blindness.

Everyone should have the right to sight!

Learn how the other senses can be stimulated to cross wire the information through neuroplasticity, and skills to incorporate techniques and promote visual functions.

Improve treatment skills through…

  • Review of neurological causes of visual deficiencies
  • Nystagmus treatment and measurement
  • Eye alignment exercises
  • Demonstration of simple exercises
  • Home program examples

The stimulation of additional sensations with neuroplasticity techniques could even allow relocation of visual function! You’ll also learn what to look for when the visual cortex has damage, all supported by case studies.

Let’s change our outlook on vision!

Program Information


  1. Determine eye misalignment and their relationship to low or high tone striated muscles.
  2. Analyze nystagmus and determine treatment interventions.
  3. Prepare home programs to improve eye alignment and visual function.


  • Vision
    • Signs to watch out for – visual challenges
    • Evaluation of vision in the field
    • Eye misalignment
      • High tone
      • Low tone
    • Analyze Nystagmus and Determine Treatment
      • COMPASS program
      • Measurement – before and after treatment
      • Presentation and progress
  • Dyslexia                 
  • Home programs to improve eye alignment and visual function
    • Easy home programs for patient and caregivers to increase visual development and neuroplasticity connections
  • Case studies – Micro-optic nerves, blind at birth, dyslexia, micro-eyes

Target Audience

  • Physical Therapists
  • Physical Therapy Assistants
  • Occupational Therapists
  • Occupational Therapy Assistants
  • Speech-Language Pathologists
  • Athletic Trainers
  • Chiropractors

Copyright : 08/31/2021

Setting Successful VISION REHAB in Motion: New Ways to Accelerate Progress for Functional Outcomes in Children & Adolescents

Program Information


  1. Determine evaluation techniques with appropriate patient treatments. 
  2. Organize plans how to initiate evaluation and home treatment plans. 
  3. Distinguish and create treatment strategies for high tone and low tone eye musculature. 
  4. Evaluate treatment for strabismus to normalize muscle tone and eye alignment.
  5. Measure nystagmus beats and use for follow-up treatments.  
  6. Differentiate types and treatments for nystagmus. 
  7. Appraise influence of Neuroplasticity therapy techniques on visual improvements during treatments. 
  8. Apply successful techniques for improved tone of the extra ocular eye muscles with vision rehabilitation.


  • Is it Poor Vision or Something Else?
    • Poor performance of task  
      • ADHD, ADD, Visual inattention 
    • Inattention and behavioral issues   
      • TBI, CVA, Trauma, Genetics, and More! 
    • Eye Tremor – Nystagmus – Eye Alignment 
  • Building Your Functional Vision A-Team
    • The Developmental Model of Vision  
    • Ophthalmologist vs Optometrist 
    • Occupational Therapist vs Visual Therapist 
    • Physical Therapist with special training in Vision Rehabilitation/Habilitation 
    • O&M Specialists 
  • Silent Symptoms of Poor Vision
    • Copying, coloring in the lines 
    • Light sensitivity and more 
    • Head tilt or head on desk 
  • School Symptoms – Vision, Behavioral or Both…
    • Looks like ADHD 
    • Under performance 
    • Fidgets, headaches, squinting eyes 
    • High or low tone 
  • Quick Screening Hints for Therapy Needs
    • Behavior Observations 
    • Motor Observations 
    • Sensory Observations 
    • Ocular Motor Demands in Environment 
    • Review task completion 
  • Neurological Considerations
    • Case study, Anoxia 
  • Calming the Autonomic Nervous System 
    • Vagus nerve trauma 
    • GI Axis connection – GI and Brain 
    • Visual changes 
    • Lighting issues/distractions 
  • Impact of Visual Challenges
    • Double vision 
    • Poor focus 
    • Visual tracking or vestibular ocular reflex 
    • Poor visual processing 
  • Isn’t the Eyeball All You Need to See?
    • Overview of Eye Anatomy and Cranial Nerves   
      • Influence of Nervous System 
      • Brain Visual Pathways 
      • Accessory Connections 
  • Auditory and Visual Pathways
    • Vision can connect to the lobe next door 
    • Stimulate vision and hearing for neurological connections 
  • Sensory Impact of Visual Skills for Learners
    • Processing centers in CNS affect multiple aspects 
    • Improving SPD increases focus and attention  
      • Integrating or developing sensory processing 
    • Learning styles 
  • Visual and Reading Benchmarks
    • Dyslexia – seeing and interpreting challenges 
    • Reading – What’s supposed to happen? 
    • Long term impact of visual impairment 
    • Time to read 
  • Genetics and Trauma and Effects on Vision
    • Down Syndrome 
    • Dandy Walker Syndrome 
    • Ocular Motor 
    • TBI, CVA, infection, autism, sensory processing disorders 
  • Creating a Thorough Assessment
    • Interview Assessment 
    • Functional Assessment 
    • Formal Assessment 
    • Documentation 
  • After the Assessment
    • Documentation of Results 
    • Documentation of Goals 
    • Active Home program 
  • Therapy Treatment Procedures
    • Vision  
    • Visual Fixation 
    • Visual processing with Autism 
    • Visual tracking  
    • Vestibular 
    • Auditory 
  • Organizing Rehabilitation/Habilitation Tips for Success
    • Home exercise program               
    • Video periodically  
    • Updates in progress, eye alignment, decreased nystagmus and visual tracking 
    • Strategies for families 
    • Keep it simple and fun 
    • Virtual life – virtual therapy 
  • Visual Fixation and Training
    • Eye tracking assessment 
    • Vestibular Ocular Reflex 
    • Visual tracking              
    • Primitive reflex influence  
    • ATNR 
    • Vestibular ocular reflex 

Target Audience

  • Physical Therapist
  • Occupational Therapist
  • Speech Language Pathologist
  • Physical Therapy Assistant
  • Occupational Therapy Assistant

Copyright : 08/06/2021