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Digital Seminar

AFO (Ankle-Foot Orthosis) Management: Optimizing Functional Gait Biomechanics & Outcomes

Vibhor Agrawal, PhD
4 Hours 45 Minutes
Audio and Video
Copyright :
Aug 18, 2017
Product Code:
Media Type:
Digital Seminar


Over the past several years, ankle foot orthoses (AFOs) have evolved in form, function, and complexity. They are no longer simple plastic devices that are beneficial only during the swing phase of gait. The newer designs incorporate the biomechanical principles of closed-kinetic chain to enhance joint and muscle function for improved gait and mobility.

Recent scientific evidence has demonstrated the advantages of AFOs for improving functional outcomes in patients with stroke, cerebral palsy, multiple sclerosis, and more. As therapists are constantly looking for ways to maximize patient function and increase revenue, it is critical to keep up with the recent developments in the field for optimizing outcomes. 

This course will provide effective strategies for clinical management of AFOs. You will delve into the biomechanics of closed-chain gait, and to understand its effect on joint motion and muscle function. You will learn how to integrate gait biomechanics with muscle function and AFO design to enhance outcomes in adult and pediatric patients. Explore the different types of AFOs and become well-versed on the most recent evidence covering intervention strategies and clinical management of AFOs.

Discuss the appropriate outcome measures to detect clinically meaningful differences in patients following an intervention. Learn the tips for billing and documentation to maximize returns. The information obtained in this course can be easily implemented in the clinic immediately for enhanced outcomes.



NOTE: Tuition includes one free CE Certificate (participant will be able to print the certificate of completion after completing and passing the on-line post-test evaluation). 

Continuing Education Information:  Listed below are the continuing education credit(s) currently available for this non-interactive self-study package. Please note, your state licensing board dictates whether self-study is an acceptable form of continuing education. Please refer to your state rules and regulations. If your profession is not listed, please contact your licensing board to determine your continuing education requirements and check for reciprocal approval. For other credit inquiries not specified below, please contact or 800-844-8260 before the event.

Materials that are included in this course may include interventions and modalities that are beyond the authorized practice of your profession.  As a licensed professional, you are responsible for reviewing the scope of practice, including activities that are defined in law as beyond the boundaries of practice in accordance with and in compliance with your profession's standards.  

All members of the PESI, Inc. planning committee have provided disclosures of financial relationships with ineligible organizations and any relevant non-financial relationships prior to planning content for this activity. None of the committee members had relevant financial relationships with ineligible companies or other potentially biasing relationships to disclose to learners.  For speaker disclosures, please see the faculty biography.

Florida Occupational Therapists & Occupational Therapy Assistants

PESI, Inc. is an approved provider with the Florida Board of Occupational Therapy. Provider Number #50-399. This course qualifies for 4.7 self-study continuing education credits.

CE Broker

California Physical Therapists & Physical Therapist Assistants

PESI, Inc. is recognized by the Physical Therapy Board of California as an approval agency to approve providers. This self-study lecture qualifies for 4.75 continuing competency hours.

Texas Physical Therapists & Physical Therapist Assistants

This activity is provided by the Texas Board of Physical Therapy Examiners Accredited Provider #2106032TX and meets continuing competence requirements for physical therapist and physical therapist assistant licensure renewal in Texas. This activity will provide 4.75 CCUs. The assignment of Texas PT CCUs does not imply endorsement of specific course content, products, or clinical procedures by TPTA or TBPTE. Full attendance is required; no partial credits will be offered for partial attendance.

Physical Therapists & Physical Therapist Assistants

This self-study course consists of 4.75 clock hours of instruction that is applicable for physical therapists. CE requirements for physical therapists vary by state/jurisdiction. Please retain the certificate of completion that you receive and use as proof of completion when required.

Illinois Physical Therapists & Physical Therapist Assistants

PESI, Inc. is a Registered Physical Therapy Continuing Education Sponsor through the State of Illinois Department of Financial and Professional Regulation, Division of Professional Regulation. License #: 216.000270. This self-study course qualifies for 4.5 CE credit hours.

New York Physical Therapists & Physical Therapist Assistants

PESI, Inc. is recognized by the New York State Education Department, State Board for Physical Therapy as an approved provider for physical therapy and physical therapy assistant continuing education. This self-study course qualifies for 5.7 contact hours.

Other Professions

This self-study activity qualifies for 4.75 continuing education clock hours as required by many national, state and local licensing boards and professional organizations. Save your activity advertisement and certificate of completion, and contact your own board or organization for specific requirements.



Vibhor Agrawal, PhD Related seminars and products

VIBHOR AGRAWAL, PhD, is a professor of Physical Therapy at the University of Miami, where he teaches courses on gait and biomechanics. He has an extensive research background in gait and movement biomechanics, with more than 50 published papers and abstracts in national and international peer-reviewed journals. He regularly presents at conferences and reviews for leading rehabilitation journals. He is an associate editor for the journal Prosthetics Orthotics International, an executive member of the International Society for Prosthetics and Orthotics and on the Board of Directors for the Orthotics & Prosthetics Activities Foundation.

As an entrepreneur, and founder of Enability LLC, Dr. Agrawal has dedicated himself to enabling individuals with disabilities through knowledge, service, and research. He also provides consulting services to corporate organizations in the design and development of assistive devices, clinical research, and education.

Speaker Disclosures:

Financial: Vibhor Agrawal is a professor at the University of Miami. He receives a speaking honorarium from PESI, Inc.

Non-financial: Vibhor Agrawal is on the Board of Directors for the Orthotics & Prosthetics Activities Foundation.

Additional Info

Program Information

Access for Self-Study (Non-Interactive) Access never expires for this product.


  1. Articulate biomechanics of closed-chain functional gait, in terms of ground reaction forces and muscle function at the foot, ankle, knee, and hip.
  2. Integrate recent research in functional gait biomechanics and outcomes for effective AFO rehabilitation strategies.
  3. Analyze the changes in gait biomechanics with pathologies, and the impact of AFOs on biomechanics and muscle function.
  4. Evaluate appropriate AFOs for optimizing patients’ gait and function in a variety of pathological conditions.
  5. Assess strategies for effective evaluation, measurement, fitting, and delivery of AFOs, as well as follow up procedures.
  6. Anticipate the billing codes and documentation requirements for providing AFOs and related services. 


  • Current gait terminology
  • Open-chain vs. closed-chain muscle function
  • Four foot rockers
  • Ankle joint and muscle function during gait
  • Gravitational and ground reaction forces at the foot, ankle, and knee
Review of the most current scientific literature of the following pathologies:
  • Stroke
  • Sensory perception loss
  • Cerebral palsy
  • Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease
  • Other neuromuscular conditions
  • Review of the existing outcome measures
    • 6MWT
    • 10 meter walk test
    • Functional Independence Measure
  • Scandinavian Stroke Scale
  • Minimal detectable change with AFO
  • Minimal clinically important difference in these measures


  • Review of the different types of AFOs
    • Solid-ankle AFOs
    • Articulated AFOs
  • Biomechanical influences of AFOs on a patient’s gait
  • The impact of AFOs on joint and muscle function
  • Indications and contraindications of each type of AFO
  • Differentiating between over-the-shelf and customfabricated AFOs
  • CP
  • MS
  • Selecting the appropriate AFO
  • Patient evaluation
  • Taking appropriate measurements
  • Ensuring a good fit
  • Do’s and Don’ts of AFO fitting
  • Signs and Symptoms of incorrect fit
  • Providing instructions at delivery
  • When to refer the patient to a specialist
  • Follow-up
    • Biomechanical evaluation at subsequent visits
    • Knowing when to change the AFO treatment plan
  • CPT codes for billing for time and expertise
  • L-codes for reimbursement for the AFO
  • Documentation requirements
  • Maximizing revenue with AFOs

Target Audience

  • Exercise Physiologists
  • Occupational Therapy
  • Occupational Therapy Assistants
  • Physical Therapy
  • Physical Therapy Assistants


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